Neonatal Stem Cells
Non-embryonic Stem Cells (“Adult” Stem Cells)
Mesenchymal Stem Cells
Cord Blood Stem Cells
After a baby is born, cord blood is left in the umbilical cord and placenta. It is relatively easy to collect, with no risk to the mother or baby. It contains haematopoietic (blood) stem cells. rare cells normally found in the bone marrow. Haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) can make every type of cell in the blood – red cells, white cells and platelets. They are responsible for maintaining blood production throughout our lives. They have been used for many years in bone marrow transplants to treat blood diseases. Cord blood stems cells can be used to treat blood cancers such as leukemia and lymphomas; and some disorders of the blood and immune system like sickle cell disease.
Embryonic Stem Cells - (ES)
are incredibly valuable stem cells that are formed as normal part of embryonic development, and have the potential to become any type of cell in the body, making them invaluable for treating and studying many diseases.
Tissue-specific stem cells
Tissue specific stem cells have been found in tissues such as the brain, heart, bone marrow, blood, blood vessels, skeletal muscles, skin and liver. These tissue-specific stem cells are powerful, naturally-occurring cells that can modify inflammation and promote natural healing.
Mesenchymal Stem Cells - (MCs)
are tissue or “adult” stem cells, which are specialized cells found in the skeletal tissues. They can differentiate or specialize into cartilage cells, bone cells and fat cells.
What are Exosomes, and why are they useful?
Neonatal exosomes are extracellular vesicles – or small structures within a cell – released by stem cells in response to injuries. One of the most promising uses of exosomes within Orthopedics involves rheumatoid arthritis (RA), an autoimmune disorder in which inflammation leads to pain and degradation of joints.